Friday, April 14, 2017

Natural Cancer Bullets A - Z

Caffeic Acid

Sources: Sweetpotato Leaves, Propolis, Apples, White Grapes, White Wine, Olives, Olive Oil, Spinach, Cabbage, Turnips, Radish, Cauliflower, Bok Choy, Arugula, Kale, Asparagus, and Coffee. 

Growth Suppression of Human Cancer Cells by Polyphenolics from Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaves
Sweetpotato leaves (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a high content of polyphenolics that consist of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. We investigated the suppression of the proliferation of selected human cancer cells by phenolic compounds isolated from sweetpotato leaf. ...Growth suppression of HL-60 cells by 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid was determined to be the result of apoptotic death of the cells. These results indicate that 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid may have potential for cancer prevention.
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells
Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE), a biologically active ingredient of propolis, has several interesting biological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, immunostimulatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, anti-metastatic and carcinostatic activities. Recently, several groups have reported that CAPE is cytotoxic to tumor cells but not to normal cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CAPE-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells. Treatment of U937 cells with CAPE decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner.

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Induces Apoptosis by Inhibition of NFκB and Activation of Fas in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

Our findings demonstrate that NFκB inhibition is sufficient to induce apoptosis and that Fas activation plays a role in NFκB inhibition-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

The antioxidant caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces apoptosis associated with selective scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in human leukemic HL-60 cells

These results suggest that apoptosis induced by CAPE is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, GSH depletion and selective scavenging of H2O2 in human leukemic HL-60 cells.
Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells in vitro
After HCT116 cells were exposed to CAPE (80, 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/L) for 24, 48, 72, 96 h, CAPE displayed a strong growth inhibitory effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner against HCT116 cells. FCM analysis showed that the ratio of G(0)/G(1) phase cells increased, S phase ratio decreased and apoptosis rate increased after HCT116 cells were exposed to CAPE (10, 5, and 2.5 mg/L) for 24 h. CAPE treatment was associated with decreased cytoplasmic beta-catenin, nuclear beta-catenin and a concurrent increase in beta-catenin protein expression at cell-cell junctions.


Foods: Hot Peppers.

Sources: Pepper Spray (It's probably a very bad idea to try and breath this stuff). Capsaicin (what makes peppers "hot") has been proven to trigger apoptosis in multiple lines of cancer.

Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway
BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin potently suppressed the growth of H69 human SCLC tumors in vivo as ascertained by CAM assays and nude mice models. The second part of our study attempted to provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. We found that the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin is correlated with a decrease in the expression of E2F-responsive proliferative genes like cyclin E, thymidylate synthase, cdc25A and cdc6, both at mRNA and protein levels.

Capsaicin-induced cell death in a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line
Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient found in red pepper, has long been used in spices, food additives, and drugs. Cell death induced by the binding of capsaicin was examined in a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS cells).
...Recently, a series of studies have demonstrated that capsaicin inhibits mutagenicity and DNA binding of some chemical carcinogens, possibly by suppressing their metabolic activation[16-18]. With cells in culture, capsaicin-inhibited proliferation of HeLa, ovarian carcinoma, and mammary adenocarcinoma by decreasing NADH oxidase activity[19]. Capsaicin can also alter the expression of tumor forming-related genes by mediating the overexpression of p53 and/or c-myc genes in a Korean stomach cancer cell line[20]. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis in T cells by increasing the reactive oxygen species and by a subsequent mitochondrial ransmembrane potential[21]. In this report, we examined the underlying mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptotic cell death in a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS).
Capsaicin-induced apoptosis and reduced release of reactive oxygen species in MBT-2 Murine Bladder Tumor cells
Capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient in genusCapsicum, has recently been tried as an intravesical drug for overactive bladder and it has also been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in many cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effect and alterations in the cellular redox state of capsaicin in MBT-2 murine bladder tumor cells. Capsaicin induced apoptotic MBT-2 cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The capsaicin-induced apoptosis was blocked by the pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk, a broad-range caspase inhibitor, or AcDEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor.
Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through caspase-independent pathway
Our results suggest that capsaicin induces cellular apoptosis through a caspase-independent pathway in MCF-7 cells, and that reactive oxygen species and intracellular calcium ion fluctuation has a minimal role in the process.
Capsaicin Shows Promise In Inhibiting Growth Of Pancreatic Cancer
In our study, we discovered that capsaicin fed orally to mice with human pancreatic tumors was an extremely effective inhibitor of the cancer process, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells,” said Sanjay K. Srivastava, Ph.D., lead investigator and assistant professor, department of pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. “Capsaicin triggered the cancerous cells to die off and significantly reduced the size of the tumors.”
TRPV6 mediates capsaicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells
In this study, both gastric cancer and normal epithelial cells were treated with capsaicin and examined for apoptosis by Annexin V binding. Our results showed that capsaicin induces apoptosis in both cells, although cancer cells are more susceptible. This susceptibility is dependent on the availability of TRPV6, a calcium-selective channel protein, as overexpression of TRPV6 in normal cells increased capsaicin-induced apoptosis and knockdown of TRPV6 in cancer cells suppressed this action. Our results further demonstrated that capsaicin increases mitochondrial permeability through activation of Bax and p53 in a JNK-dependent manner.

Capsaicin Mediates Cell Death in Bladder Cancer T24 Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization
RESULTS: CAP decreased the viability of T24 cells in a dose-dependent manner without marked apoptosis. CAP induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, thereby inducing cell death, not apoptosis, in T24 cells at a concentration of 100 microM or higher. Furthermore, these effects of CAP could be reversed by capsazepine, the antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. In vivo experiment showed that CAP significantly slowed the growth of T24 bladder cancer xenografts as measured by size (661.80 +/- 62.03 vs 567.02 +/- 43.94 mm(3); P

Chillies could help beat cancer as research finds capsaicin destroys diseased cells

Scientists say breast, colon, bone and pancreatic cancer cells could be caused to self destruct by the spicy ingredient


Food: Cinnamon 

Can Cinnamon be the Silver Bullet for Cancer?
Surprisingly, one of the potential agents for this role, cinnamon, is readily available at your local Café. Two of the main ingredients of cinnamon, cinnamaldehyde and procyanidins, have been previously shown to have health-beneficial activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activity. Moreover, an extract from cinnamon (CE) was recently shown to have antitumor and anti-angiogenesis activity as well.

In a recent article published in Molecular Carcinogenesis, scientists from the US have showed that treatment with CE results in reduced migration of invasive breast and ovarian cancer cells, accompanied by reduced protein expression levels of both VEGF and HIF-1. In addition, a significant suppression of blood-vessel formation (see Figure below) and tumor growth was shown after CE treatment in a human ovarian tumor mouse model, which is the most deadly malignancy in women.
Cinnamon Compound Curtails Cancer
The second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US, colorectal cancer is a progressive disease generally with poor prognosis. Consequently, scientists are exploring approaches that may prevent the disease. Previously, Georg Wondrak, from the University of Arizona (Arizona, USA) identified the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as rich dietary sources of cinnamaldehyde – an inducer of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense that represents a promising molecular target for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
Cinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis by ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells
Cinnamaldehyde is an active compound isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the effects of cinnamaldehyde on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and the putative pathways of its actions in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. ...Taken together, our data indicate that cinnamaldehyde induces the ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and resultant cytochrome c release. This is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of cinnamaldehyde.
More Cinnamon, Less Cancer
It has been know for a few years that several types of spices contain large amounts of cancer-fighting compounds that could help in the prevention of the disease. In addition to the well-known health properties of tumeric and ginger, a recent study has suggested that cinnamon could be equally useful in reducing tumour growth by blocking the formation of new vessels using a process called angiogenesis.
Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1
Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro.


Food: Lemon Grass
Sources: Asian grocery's (lemon grass), Health food stores (extracts).

Fresh lemon grass fields in Israel become Mecca for cancer patients

A drink with as little as one gram of lemon grass contains enough citral to prompt cancer cells to commit suicide in the test tube. Israeli researchers find way to make cancer cells self-destruct - Ben Gurion University

Lemongrass Fights More than a Dozen Different Types of Cancers

A 2009 study published in the journal Chemico-Biological Interactions revealed that lemongrass essential oil is effective in targeting at least 12 different human cancer cell lines. Animal trials show that direct injection of lemongrass essential oil inhibits cancer tumors in a dose-dependent way, meaning the higher the dose of the oil, the better the outcome.

When administered at a dosage of 200 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) concentration, lemongrass essential oil was shown to inhibit both ascitic (in the fluid of the abdominal cavity) and solid tumors of Ehrlich Ascites (a type of tumor cell line) by 97.34 percent and 57.83 percent, respectively. For Sarcoma-180 tumor cells, the same dosage resulted in ascitic and solid tumor inhibition of 94.07 percent and 36.97 percent, respectively.

An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.
An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. ...The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.
Citral is a New Inducer of Caspase-3 in Tumor Cell Lines

Citral, 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al, a key component of the lemon-scented essential oils extracted from several herbal plants such as lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), melissa (Melissa officinalis), verbena (Verbena officinalis) is used as a food additive and as a fragrance in cosmetics. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer potential of citral and its mode of action. Concentrations of 44.5 μM, comparable to the concentration of citral in a cup of tea prepared from 1 g of lemon grass, induced apoptosis in several hematopoietic cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 catalytic activity induction. Citral activity (22.25 μM) was compared to a reference compound like staurosporine (0.7 μM), in respect to DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 enzymatic activity. The apoptotic effect of citral depended on the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde group.

Citral inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells.
In this study, we investigated the effect of citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a key component of essential oils extracted from several herbal plants, on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The effects of this compound were also tested on cyclo-oxygenase activity. Citral treatment caused inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth (IC(50)-48 h: 18 x 10(-5)m), with a cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we observed a decrease in prostaglandin E(2) synthesis 48 h after citral treatment. These findings suggest that citral has a potential chemopreventive effect.

Cod Liver Oil

Women and Lung Cancer - Could Cod Liver Oil Improve Survival
My Scandinavian, cod-liver-oil-serving grandma was right again – based on the results of a new Norwegian study. Women who used cod liver oil daily for a year prior to their diagnosis of lung cancer, had a 44% lower chance of dying. Though my grandmother would have turned 100 last week, support for her advice will be published next month in the International Journal of Cancer. Researchers looked at questionnaires completed by over 68,000 women between 1996 and 1999. They then analyzed 2,242 women who developed cancer following the questionnaire and up to the year 2007. Women who used cod liver oil daily, had a 23% lower chance of dying from solid tumors in general (breast, colorectal, and lung cancers), and a 44% reduced risk of dying from lung cancer.

Coenzyme Q10

Foods: Fish, chicken, peanuts, seasame seeds, pistachios, olive oil, soy beans, grapeseed, parsley, perilla, broccoli (and relatives).

How does CoQ10 work against cancer?
Co-Q10 is present in most "eukaryotic" cells (muscle tissues and more). It's produced naturally in the body, which uses it for cell growth and to protect cells from damage that could lead to cancer. In animals it's most concentrated in the heart. Co-Q10 both boosts the immune system, and has been shown to induce apoptosis.
A Gentle Cancer Killer
In laboratory and animal studies, the UM researchers found that by delivering CoQ10 to cancer cells and tissues, the molecule induced apoptosis, which is the normal programmed cell death that goes awry in the disease process.
Coenzyme Q10 (PDQ®)–Patient Version
Low blood levels of coenzyme Q10 have been found in patients with myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the breast, lung, prostate, pancreas, colon, kidney, and head and neck. Studies suggest that coenzyme Q10 may help the immune system work better. Partly because of this, coenzyme Q10 is used as adjuvant therapy for cancer. Adjuvant therapy is treatment given following the primary treatment to increase the chances of a cure.
Clinical trials have shown that coenzyme Q10 helps protect the heart from the damaging side effects of doxorubicin, a drug used to treat cancer.

Normalizattion of BCL-2 family members in breast cancer by Coenzyme Q10
Because of their integral role in intrinsic apoptosis any imbalance can lead to a variety of diseases; under expression can lead to degenerative diseases while over expression can lead to cancer and autoimmune disease. Due to their life or death role in the cell, Bcl-2 family members are currently the targets of many therapies in various disease states. Bcl-2 itself is over expressed in most tumors and all anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members are considered to have oncogenic potential. Conversely, the pro-apoptotic members are considered to be tumor suppressors and many mimetics are foci for cancer research. ...Both pro- and anti-apoptotic protein levels were measured in the two breast cancer cell lines after Q10 exposure. Protein levels were measured at 4,8,12, and 24 hours respectively in order to capture evidence of Q10's normalizing influence on disrupted apoptotic function. In the MCF-7 cell line Bcl-2 levels were seen to significantly drop after only 4 hours of Q10 exposure.


Food: Cumin Seeds.

Primary ingredient in Chili Powder.

Cumin: natures potent cancer combatant
This herb has been seen to effectively decrease the incidence of chemically induced tumors of the stomach, colon, and cervix. Its significant antioxidant activity and the ability to modulate the metabolism of carcinogens (toxins) explain its cancer-preventive prowess. Cumin seeds are known to induce the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, a protective enzyme that helps eliminate cancer-causing substances. Cumin offers a significant level of caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, and other phenolic acids that have anti-inflammatory potential.


Foods: Tumeric roots / powder, curry powder, yellow mustard.
Sources: Health food stores (extracts), large farmers markets (roots), Indian grocery stores (tumeric powder in bulk).

Induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by curcumin
This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes induced by curcumin leading to the induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines—A549 and H1299. A549 is p53 proficient and H1299 is p53 null mutant. The lung cancer cells were treated with curcumin (0–160 μM) for 12–72 h. Curcumin inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. Growth inhibition of H1299 cell lines was both time and concentration dependent. Curcumin induced apoptosis in both the lung cancer cell lines. A decrease in expression of p53, bcl-2, and bcl-XL was observed after 12 h exposure of 40 μM curcumin. Bak and Caspase genes remained unchanged up to 60 μM curcumin but showed decrease in expression levels at 80–160 μM. The data also suggest a p53 independent induction of apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

Curcumin induces apoptosis in immortalized NIH 3T3 and malignant cancer cell lines
Curcumin, which is a widely used dietary pigment and spice, has been demonstrated to be an effective inhibitor of tumor promotion in mouse skin carcinogenesis. We report that curcumin induces cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, characteristics of apoptosis, in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblast NIH 3T3 erb B2 oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3, mouse sarcoma S180, human colon cancer cell HT-29, human kidney cancer cell 293, and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells

Curcumin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells
The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of curcumin-induced human breast cancer cell apoptosis. From quantitative image analysis data showing an increase in the percentage of cells with a sub-G0/G1 DNA content, we demonstrated curcumin-induced apoptosis in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, in which expression of wild-type p53 could be induced. Apoptosis was accompanied by an increase in p53 level as well as its DNA-binding activity followed by Bax expression at the protein level. Further experiments using p53-null MDAH041 cell as well as low and high p53-expressing TR9-7 cell, in which p53 expression is under tight control of tetracycline, established that curcumin induced apoptosis in tumor cells via a p53-dependent pathway in which Bax is the downstream effector of p53. This property of curcumin suggests that this molecule could have a possible therapeutic potential in breast cancer patients.
Chemopreventive Effect of Curcumin, a Naturally Occurring Anti-Inflammatory Agent, during the Promotion/Progression Stages of Colon Cancer
The inhibition of adenocarcinomas of the colon was, in fact, dose dependent. Administration of curcumin to the rats during the initiation and postinitiation stages and throughout the promotion/progression stage increased apoptosis in the colon tumors as compared to colon tumors in the groups receiving AOM and the control diet. Thus, chemopreventive activity of curcumin is observed when it is administered prior to, during, and after carcinogen treatment as well as when it is given only during the promotion/progression phase (starting late in premalignant stage) of colon carcinogenesis.

Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by curcumin in human ovarian cancer cells

Curcumin, an active ingredient from the rhizome of the plant, Curcuma longa, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It has recently been demonstrated that the chemopreventive activities of curcumin might be due to its ability to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of curcumin on growth and apoptosis in the human ovarian cancer cell line Ho-8910 by MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our data revealed that curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in Ho-8910 cells. A decrease in expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and pro-caspase-3 was observed after exposure to 40 microM curcumin, while the levels of p53 and Bax were increased in the curcumin-treated cells. These activities may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin.
Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-tumor promoter, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells

Curcumin, widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food, possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting activities. In the present study, curcumin was found to induce apoptotic cell death in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells at concentrations as low as 3.5 micrograms/ml.
Notch-1 down-regulation by curcumin is associated with the inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells
Curcumin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Notch-1, Hes-1, and Bcl-XL expression levels concomitantly were down-regulated by curcumin treatment. These results correlated with the inactivation of NF-κB activity and increased apoptosis induced by curcumin. The down-regulation of Notch-1 by small-interfering RNA prior to curcumin treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis.


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